Steel structures in fire
In this Thesis a study about the behavior of steel structures on fire was carried out. Comments about fire models (temperature-time curves of hot gases) are made and the expressions to determine the thermal action on the structures and its effect, the temperature on steel, are derived. The influence of load fire, opening factor (ventilation) and section factor (massivity factor) is discussed. Stress-strain curves of steel, including the creep phenomena, under high temperature are presented. A comparison between the safety criteria for the accidental situation of structures in fire, based on Brazilian and European Standards, is made. A simplified method of steel structures fire design is recommended and the influence of geometrical and material non linearities and thermal deformation are analyzed.
Steel structures in fire
Neste trabalho, foi deduzida a equação geral para a determinação do momento crítico à flambagem lateral de vigas com seção monossimétrica em regime elástico e analisados diversos casos particulares. Foi feita uma comparação às recomendações da Norma Brasileira (ABNT NBR 8800:1986 e normas norte-americanas AISC/LRFD/1986 e AISI/1986). Foram indicadas e comentadas as limitações no uso das expressões presentes nessas Normas. Foi incluído também um resumo dos principais resultados numéricos para uso no cálculo expedito do momento crítico em esquemas estruturais convencionais.
Lateral-torsional buckling of steel beams in elastic linear regimen
A study will be carried out on the behavior of simply supported, full interaction composite steel and concrete beams composed by compact profiles in fire situation. Despite being designed as simply supported, the main idea is to consider, in the fire situation analysis, the moment resistance capacity reserve on the beam supports, usually neglected during room temperature design, due to the upper longitudinal reinforcement present in the concrete slab, being possible to dispense fireproof coating in these elements. First, room temperature design procedures of composite beams will be approached in order to explain the structural behavior of this type of elements, providing a basis for subsequent thermal analysis. The thermal analysis will be carried out, in a first stage, by simplified methods according to design procedures and adopting simplifying hypotheses in which indirect stresses caused by thermal expansion and thermal gradient are neglected, being possible to apply those concepts in structural design offices. In a second step, thermal stress analyses were performed with aid of numerical models to study the structural behavior and collapse time of the beam. The results were sufficient to validate the fire resistance time values found by the simplified analysis following design methods. As a conclusion, the structural capacity increase of the beam, provided by the adoption of the composite connection at the support in case of lighter steel profiles usually chosen to be used as buildings floor beams, was sufficient for situations of standard fire resistance requirements between 15 min and 21 min. Analyzes have shown that it is not possible to justify the absence of fire resistant coating for standard fire resistance requirements of 30 min or higher. Lower times can be adopted according to the so-called equivalent time method, limited to 15 min, which are more common for small buildings. Key-words: fire; steel structures; composite steel and concrete structures; thermal structure analysis; semicontinuous beams.
The issue of this Master Dissertation is the design of steel beams and columns in fire situation. The formulation for the design in fire was presented, explaining its origin. The main objective is the development of a computational tool, which was called AçoInc, able to calculate the resistances of steel elements at room temperature according to ABNT NBR 8800:2008 and in case of fire according to ABNT NBR 14323:2013. The temperature of the steel element in fire is also obtained through the AçoInc, following the heat transfer model of ABNT NBR 14323:2013 and basing on fire curves. These curves are the standard fire curve associated with the required fire resistance time and parametric curves for natural fire model of Eurocode 1 (2002). With the support of spreadsheets, some studies were performed. The first one is probabilistic study of failure of column and beam in fire situation considering the parametric fire and by means of the Monte Carlo method. Other study is parametric sensitivity analyses, which were performed to verify how the resistances are influenced by the dimensions of cross section, the variables of the natural fire and the properties associated with heat transfer. For this study, in addition to spreadsheets, we used the Software Statgraphics Centurion XV (2007), which contains resources of statistical analysis. Applying the spreadsheets, the equivalence between parametric curves and fire standard curve in the obtention of the steel temperature in the fire situation was verified. For the use of parametric fire, partial factors, based on the equivalent time method detailed on ABNT NBR 14323:2013 were proposed. At last, with the assistance of spreadsheets, simple non-computational tools were created for determining the critical temperatures for columns and beams in some constructive situations of practical interest. Some conclusions from these studies are that the steel temperature is the most important parameter in determining the resistance of steel structures in a fire situation, that the current formulation for parametric fire modeling leads to a variation of the fire temperature in function of the opening factor with undesirable discontinuity and that the data found in the international literature about probability of fire and flashover lead to divergent values of structural failure probability.
Steel structures strength is reduced at high temperatures. The aim of this work is to analyze the behavior of supported and fully fixed end beams at high temperature, considering: several load levels, uniform temperature on the beam and thermal gradient through the cross section. The displacements, loads and reaction efforts in accordance to the temperature variations will be presented, taking into account the resistance decrease and the strain amplification at elevated temperatures. The analysis has been carried out by means the computer program ANSYS® v. 6, using the “beam-24” fine element. It was considered the non-linear effects of the geometry and the material of the structure, besides the stress-strain diagram in high temperature to many thermal levels. The thermal properties of the steel adopted in the structural modeling of the steel beams are given in the Brazilian Standard NBR 14323 (1999) – “Dimensionamento de estrutura de aço de edifícios em situação de incêndio” (“Steel structures design of buildings in fire conditions”).